Artikelen & Referenties

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Referenties en Samenwerking

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Ω Autism

  • Ajzenman, H. (2013). Effect of hippotherapy on motor control, adaptive behaviors, and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(6), 653–663.

  • Anderson, S. & Meints, K. (2016). The effects of equine-assisted activities on the social functioning in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 46(10), 3344–3352.

  • Bass, M.M., Duchowny, C.A., & Llabre, M.M. (2009). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on social functioning in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1261–1267.

  • Borgi, M., Loliva, D., Cerino, S., Chiarotti, F., Venerosi, A., Bramini, M., et. al., (2016). Effectiveness of a standardized equine-assisted therapy program for children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(1), 1–9.

  • Chen, C.-C., Crews, D., Mundt, S., & Ringenbach, S.D.R. (2015). Effects of equine interaction on EEG asymmetry in children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 61(1), 56–59.

  • Dingman, A. (2008). Hoof prints: Equine therapy for autistic children. Encounter, 21(4), 11–13.

  • Erdman, P., Miller, D., & Jacobson, S. (2015). The impact of an equine facilitated learning program on youth with autism spectrum disorder. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 3(2), 21–36.

  • Gabriels, R.L., Agnew, J.A., Holt, K.D., Shoffner, A., Zhaoxing, P., et. al., (2012). Pilot study measuring the effects of therapeutic horseback riding on school-age children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(2), 578–588.

  • Gabriels, R. L., Pan, Z., Dechant, B., Agnew, J. A., Brim, N., & Mesibov, G. (2015). Randomized controlled trial of therapeutic horseback riding in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(7), 541–549.

  • García-Gómez, A., López-Risco, M., Rubio-Jiménez, J., Barona-Guerrero, E., & García-Peña, I. (2014). Effects of a program of adapted therapeutic horse-riding in a group of autism spectrum disorder children. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 12(1), 107–128.

  • Ghorban, H., Sedigheh, D.R., Marzieh, G., & Yaghoob, G. (2013). Effectiveness of therapeutic horseback riding on social skills of children with autism spectrum disorder in Shiraz, Iran. Journal of Education and Learning, 2(3), 79-84.

  • Hameury, L., Delavous, P., Teste, B., Leroy, C., Gaboriau, J.C., & Berthier, A. (2010). Equine-assisted therapy and autism. Annales Medico-Psychologiques, 168(9), 655–659.

  • Hawkins, B.L., Ryan, J.B., Cory, L.A., & Donaldson, M.C. (2014). Effects of equine-assisted therapy on gross motor skills of two children with autism spectrum disorder. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 48(2), 135–150.

  • Holm, M. B., Baird, J. M., Kim, Y. J., Rajora, K. B., D’Silva, D., Podolinsky, L., et. al., (2014). Therapeutic horseback riding outcomes of parent-identified goals for children with autism spectrum disorder: An ABA′ multiple case design examining dosing and generalization to the home and community. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(4), 937–947.

  • Jenkins, S.R., & Digennaro Reed, F.D. (2013). An experimental analysis of the effects of therapeutic horseback riding on the behavior of children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(6), 721–740.

  • Kern, J.K., Fletcher, C.L., Garver, C.R., Mehta, J.A., Grannemann, B.D., Knox, K.R., et. al., (2011). Prospective trial of equine-assisted activities in autism spectrum disorder. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 17(3), 14–20.

  • Lanning, B., Baier, M.E.M., Ivey-Hatz, J., Krenek, N., & Tubbs, J.D. (2014). Effects of equine assisted activities on autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 1897–1907.

  • *Memishevikj, H, & Hodzhikj, S. (2010). The effects of equine-assisted therapy in improving the psycho-social functioning of children with autism. Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, 11, 57–67.

  • Nelson, K., Axtell, J., & Derby, K. (2011). A preliminary analysis of therapeutic horseback riding. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 1(4), 644–656.

  • Sánchez, C.T., Castro, F.V., Herrera, S.S., & Juánez, J.C. (2014). Hormonal changes analysis by effects of horses assisted therapy in the autistic population. Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences, 132, 87–91.

  • Steiner, H., & Kertesz, Z. (2015). Effects of therapeutic horse riding on gait cycle parameters and some aspects of behavior of children with autism. Acta Physiologica Hungarica, 102(3), 324–335.

  • Taylor, R. R., Kielhofner, G., Smith, C., Butler, S., Cahill, S. M., Ciukaj, M. D., & Gehman, M. (2009). Volitional change in children with autism: A single-case design study of the impact of hippotherapy on motivation. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 25, 192–200.

  • Ward, S. C., Whalon, K., Rusnak, K., Wendell, K., & Paschall, N. (2013). The association between therapeutic horseback riding and the social communication and sensory reactions of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 2190–2198.

  • Wuang, Y.-P., Wang, C.-C., Huang, M.-H., & Su, C.-Y. (2010). The effectiveness of simulated developmental horse-riding program in children with autism. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27(2), 113–126.

Ω  At-Risk Youth

  • Bachi, K., Terkel, J., & Teichman, M. (2011). Equine-facilitated psychotherapy for at-risk adolescents: The influence on self-image, self-control and trust. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17(2), 298–312.

  • *Boshoff, C., Grobler, H., & Nienaber, A. (2015). The evaluation of an equine-assisted therapy programme with a group of boys in a youth care facility. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 25(1), 86–90.

  • *Bowers, M.J. & MacDonald, P.M. (2001). The effectiveness of equine-facilitated psychotherapy with at-risk adolescents: A pilot study. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 15, 62-76.

  • Burgon, H.L. (2011). “Queen of the world”: Experiences of “at-risk” young people participating in equine-assisted learning/therapy. Journal of Social Work Practice, 25(2), 165–183.

  • Burgon, H.L. (2014). Horses, mindfulness and the natural environment: Observations from a qualitative study with at-risk young people participating in therapeutic horsemanship. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 17(2), 51–67.

  • *Drinkhouse, M., Birmingham, S., Fillman, R., & Jedlicka, H. (2012). Correlation of human and horse heart rates during equine-assisted therapy sessions with at-risk youths: A pilot study. Journal of Student Research, 1(3), 22–25.

  • Frederick, K.E., Ivey Hatz, J., & Lanning, B. (2015). Not just horsing around: The impact of equine-assisted learning on levels of hope and depression in at-risk adolescents. Community Mental Health Journal, 51(7), 809–817.

  • Gibbons, J. L., Cunningham, C. A., Paiz, L., Poelker, K. E., & Chajón, A. (2016). “Now, he will be the leader of the house”: An equine intervention with at-risk Guatemalan youth. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 10(10), 1–15.

  • Holmes, C.M.P., Goodwin, D., Redhead, E.S., & Goymour, K.L. (2012). The benefits of equine-assisted activities: An exploratory study. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 29(2), 111–122.

  • Kaiser, L., Smith, K. A., Heleski, C. R., & Spence, L. J. (2006). Exploring the bond effects of a therapeutic riding program on at-risk and special education children. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 228(2), 46–52.

  • *Kendall, E., & Maujean, A. (2015). Horse play: A brief psychological intervention for disengaged youths. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 10(1), 46–61.

  • *Maujean, A., Kendall, E., Lillan, R., Sharp, T., & Pringle, G. (2013). Connecting for health: Playing with horses as a therapeutic tool. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(4), 515–522.

  • Saggers, B. & Strachan, J. (2016). Horsing around: Using equine facilitated learning to support the development of social-emotional competence of students at risk of school failure. Child & Youth Services, 37(3), 231–252.

  • *Trotter, K. S., Chandler, C. K., Goodwin-Bond, D., & Casey. (2008). A comparative study of the efficacy of group equine assisted counseling with at-risk children and adolescents. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 3, 254–284.

  • Waite, C., & Bourke, L. (2013). “It’s different with a horse”: Horses as a tool for engagement in a horse therapy program for marginalised young people. Youth Studies Australia, 32(4).

  • Wilkie, K.D., Germain, S., & Theule, J. (2016). Evaluating the efficacy of equine therapy among at-risk youth: A meta-analysis. Anthrozoos, 29, 377–393.

Ω  PTSD, Trauma, Abuse

  • Earles, J., Vernon, L., & Yetz, J. (2015). Equine-assisted therapy for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28, 149–152.

  • *Froeschle, J. (2009). Empowering abused women through equine assisted career therapy. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 4(2), 180–190.

  • Guerino, M.R., Briel, A.F., & Araújo, M.G.R. (2015). Hippotherapy as a treatment for socialization after sexual abuse and emotional stress. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(3), 959–962.

  • *Johansen, S.G.; Arfwedson Wang, C.E., & Binder, P.-E. (2016). Facilitating change in a client’s dysfunctional behavioural pattern with horse-aided psychotherapy. A case study. Counselling & Psychotherapy Research, 16(3), 222–231.

  • *Kemp, K., Signal, T., Botros, H., Taylor, N., & Prentice, K. (2014). Equine facilitated therapy with children and adolescents who have been sexually abused: A program evaluation study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 558–566.

  • *McCullough, L., Risley-Curtiss, C., & Rorke, J. (2015). Equine facilitated psychotherapy: A pilot study of effect on posttraumatic stress symptoms in maltreated youth. Journal of Infant, Child & Adolescent Psychotherapy, 14(2), 158–173.

  • *Meinersmann, K.M., Bradberry, J., & Roberts, F.B. (2008). Equine-facilitated psychotherapy with adult female survivors of abuse. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 46(12), 36–42.

  • *Porter-Wenzlaff, L. (2007). Finding their voice: Developing emotional, cognitive, and behavioral congruence in female abuse survivors through equine-facilitated psychotherapy. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 3(5), 529–534.

  • *Schroeder, K., & Stroud, D. (2015). Equine-facilitated group work for women survivors of interpersonal violence. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 3922, 1–22.

  • *Schultz, P. N., Remick-Barlow, G. A., & Bobbins, L. (2007). Equine-assisted psychotherapy: A mental health promotion/intervention modality for children who have experienced infra-family violence. Health and Social Care in the Community, 15(3), 265–271.

  • *Signal, T., Taylor, N., Botros, H., Prentice, K., & Lazarus, K. (2013). Whispering to horses: childhood sexual abuse, depression and the efficacy of equine facilitated therapy. SAANZ Journal, 5(1), 24–32.

  • *Whittlesey-Jerome, W.K. (2014). Adding equine-assisted psychotherapy to conventional treatments: A pilot study exploring ways to increase adult female self-efficacy among victims of interpersonal violence. The Practitioner Scholar: Journal of Counseling and Professional Psychology, 3, 82–101.

  • *Yorke, J., Adams, C., & Coady, N. (2008). Therapeutic value of equine-human bonding in recovery from trauma. Anthrozoös, 21(1), 17–30.

  • *Yorke, J., Nugent, W., Strand, E., Bolen, R., New, J., & Davis, C. (2013). Equine-assisted therapy and its impact on cortisol levels of children and horses: a pilot study and meta-analysis. Early Child Development and Care, 183(7), 874–894.

Ω Elderly

  • Cho, S.-H., Kim, J.-W., Kim, S.-R., & Cho, B.-J. (2015). Effects of horseback riding exercise therapy on hormone levels in elderly persons. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(7), 2271–3.

  • Dabelko-Schoeny, H., Phillips, G., Darrough, E., DeAnna, S., Jarden, M., Johnson, D., & Lorch, G. (2014). Equine-assisted intervention for people with dementia. Anthrozoos, 27(1), 141–155.

  • de Araujo, T.B., Silva, N.A., Costa, J.N., Pereira, M.M., & Safons, M.P. (2011). Effect of equine-assisted therapy on the postural balance of the elderly. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 15(5), 414–419.

  • *de Araújo, T.B., de Oliveira, R.J., Martins, W.R., de Moura Pereira, M., Copetti, F., & Safons, M. P. (2013). Effects of hippotherapy on mobility, strength and balance in elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 56(3), 478–481.

  • Homnick, D. N., Henning, K. M., Swain, C. V, & Homnick, T. D. (2013). Effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance in community-dwelling older adults with balance deficits. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(7), 622–626.

  • Homnick, T. D., Henning, K. M., Swain, C. V, & Homnick, D. N. (2015). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance in community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study. Journal of Applied Gerontology: The Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society, 34(1), 118–26.

  • *Kim, S. G., & Lee, C.-W. (2014). The effects of hippotherapy on elderly persons’ static balance and gait. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(1), 25–27.

  • Kim, S. G., & Lee, J. H. (2015). The effects of horse riding simulation exercise on muscle activation and limits of stability in the elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 60(1), 62–65.

  • Kim, S., Yuk, G.-C., & Gak, H. (2013). Effects of the horse riding simulator and ball exercises on balance of the elderly. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 25(11), 1425–1428.

  • *Seon, G.K., & Lee, C.W. (2014). The effects of hippotherapy on elderly persons’ static balance and gait. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(1), 25–27.

  • *Wehofer, L., Goodson, N., & Shurtleff, T. L. (2013). Equine assisted activities and therapies: A case study of an older adult. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 31(1), 71–87.

Ω Psychiatric Conditions / Mental Illness

  • Ansorge, J., & Sudres, J.-L. (2011). Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry. Soins. Psychiatrie, 277, 40–44.

  • Bizub, A., Joy, A., & Davidson, L. (2003). “It’s like being in another world”: Demonstrating the benefits of therapeutic horseback riding for individuals with psychiatric disability. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 26(4), 377–384.

  • *Cerino, S., Cirulli, F., Chiarotti, F., & Seripa, S. (2011). Non conventional psychiatric rehabilitation in schizophrenia using therapeutic riding: the FISE multicentre Pindar project. Annali dell’Istituto Superiore Di Sanità, 47(4), 409–414.

  • *Chardonnens, E. (2009). The use of animals as co-therapists on a farm: The child-horse bond in person-centred equine-assisted psychotherapy. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 8(4), 319–332.

  • Corring, D., Lundberg, E., & Rudnick, A. (2013). Therapeutic horseback riding for ACT patients with schizophrenia. Community Mental Health Journal, 49(1), 121–126. h

  • Ewing, C.A., MacDonald, P.M., Taylor, M., & Bowers, M.J. (2007). Equine-facilitated learning for youths with severe emotional disorders: A quantitative and qualitative study. Child Youth Care Forum, 36, 59–72.

  • *Johansen, S.G., & Malt, U.F. (2010). Development of a new therapeutic equine facilitated psychotherapy program for patients with mood and other psychiatric disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122, S44–S45.

  • *Nurenberg, J.R., Schleifer, S., Carson, S., Tsang, J., Montalvo, C., & Chou, K. (2013). Equine-facilitated group psychotherapy with chronic psychiatric inpatients: Two controlled studies. European Psychiatry, 28, 1.

  • *Nurenberg, J. R., Schleifer, S. J., Shaffer, T. M., Yellin, M., Desai, P. J., Amin, R., et. al., (2015). Animal-assisted therapy with chronic psychiatric inpatients: Equine-assisted psychotherapy and aggressive behavior. Psychiatric Services, 66(1), 80–86.

  • Seredova, M., Maskova, A., Mrstinova, M., & Volicer, L. (2016). Effects of hippotherapy on well-being of patients with schizophrenia. Archives of Neuroscience, 3(4), 1–5.

Ω Stroke

  • Baek, I.-H., & Kim, B. J. (2014). The effects of horse riding simulation training on stroke patients’ balance ability and abdominal muscle thickness changes. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(8), 1293–6.

  • *Beinotti, F., Correia, N., Christofoletti, G., & Borges, G. (2010). Use of hippotherapy in gait training for hemiparetic post-stroke. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 68(6), 908–913.

  • Beinotti, F., Christofoletti, G., Correia, N., & Borges, G. (2013). Effects of horseback riding therapy on quality of life in patients post stroke. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation Journal, 20(3), 226–232.

  • Bunketorp Käll, L., Lundgren-Nilsson, Å., Blomstrand, C., Pekna, M., Pekny, M., & Nilsson, M. (2012). The effects of a rhythm and music-based therapy program and therapeutic riding in late recovery phase following stroke: a study protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial. BMC Neurology, 12, 141–153.

  • Kim, H., Her, J. G., & Ko, J. (2014). Effect of horseback riding simulation machine training on trunk balance and gait of chronic stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(1), 29–32.

  • Kim, Y.-N., & Lee, D.-K. (2015). Effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living in stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(3), 607–9.

  • Park, J., Lee, S., Lee, J., & Lee, D. (2013). The effects of horseback riding simulator exercise on postural balance of chronic stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 25(9), 1169–72.

  • *Sung, Y. H., Kim, C. J., Yu, B. K., & Kim, K. M. (2013). A hippotherapy simulator is effective to shift weight bearing toward the affected side during gait in patients with stroke. NeuroRehabilitation, 33(3), 407–412.

Ω Veterans

  • Asselin, G., Ward, C., Penning, J.H., Ramanujam, S., & Neri, R. (2012). Therapeutic horse back riding of a spinal cord injured veteran: A case study. Rehabilitation Nursing, 37(6), 270–276.

  • *Burton, L. E., & Burge, M. R. (2015). Equine assisted therapy reduces symptoms in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 63(1), 165.

  • Duncan, C. R., Critchley, S., & Marland, J. (2014). Can praxis: A model of equine assisted learning (EAL) for PTSD. Canadian Military Journal, 14(2), 64–69.

  • *Ferruolo, D. M. (2015). Psychosocial equine program for veterans. Social Work, 61(1), 53–60.

  • Lanning, B., & Krenek, N. (2013). Guest Editorial: Examining effects of equine-assisted activities to help combat veterans improve quality of life. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 50(8), vii–xiii.

  • *Mykhaylov, B.V, Serdiuk, A.I., Vodka, M.E., Aliieva, T.A., & Vashkite, I.D. (2016). The use of equine assisted psychotherapy among the demobilized members of the antiterrorist operation with PTSD, located on rehabilitation in sanatorium conditions. Психіатрія, Неврологія Та Медична Психологія, 1(5), 112–117.

  • *Nevins, R., Finch, S., Hickling, E.J., & Barnett, S.D. (2013). The Saratoga WarHorse project: a case study of the treatment of psychological distress in a veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 27(4), 22—25.

  • Newton-Cromwell, S.A., McSpadden, B.D., & Johnson, R. (2015). Incorporating experiential learning for equine-assisted activities and therapies with an in-house equine therapy program for veterans. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 35(5), 458.

Ω Multiple Sclerosis

  • *Gencheva, N., Ivanova, I., & Stefanova, D. (2015). Evaluation of hippotherapy in the course of multiple sclerosis treatment. Activities in Physical Education and Sport, 5(2), 183–187.

  • *Hammer, A., Nilsagård, Y., Forsberg, A., Pepa, H., Skargren, E., & Oberg, B. (2005). Evaluation of therapeutic riding (Sweden)/hippotherapy (United States). A single-subject experimental design study replicated in eleven patients with multiple sclerosis. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 21(1), 51–77.

  • *Lindroth, J.L., Sullivan, J.L., & Silkwood-Sherer, D. (2015). Does hippotherapy effect use of sensory information for balance in people with multiple sclerosis? Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 31(8), 575–581.

  • *Menezes, K. M., Copetti, F., Wiest, M. J., Trevisan, C. M., & Silveira, A. F. (2013). Effect of hippotherapy on the postural stability of patients with multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study. Fisioterapia E Pesquisa, 1000(4), 43–49.

  • Munoz-Lasa, S., Ferriero, G., Valero, R., Gomez-Muniz, F., Rabini, A., & Varela, E. (2011). Effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance and gait of people with multiple sclerosis. Giornale Italiano Di Medicina Del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia, 33(4), 462–467.

  • *Silkwood-Sherer, D., & Warmbier, H. (2007). Effects of hippotherapy on postural stability, in persons with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 31(2), 77–84.

Ω Addictions / Chemical Dependency

  • Adams, C., Arratoon, C., Boucher, J., Cartier, G., Chalmers, D., Dell, C.A., et. al., (2015). The helping horse: How equine assisted learning contributes to the wellbeing of First Nations youth in treatment for volatile substance misuse. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 1(1), 52–75.

  • Cody, P., Steiker, L. H., & Szymandera, M. L. (2011). Equine therapy: Substance abusers’ “healing through horses”. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions.

  • Dell, C. A., Chalmers, D., Dell, D., Sauve, E., & MacKinnon, T. (2008). Horse as healer: An examination of equine assisted learning in the healing of First Nations youth from solvent abuse. Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health, 81–106.

  • Dell, C. A., Chalmers, D., Bresette, N., Swain, S., Rankin, D., & Hopkins, C. (2011). A healing space: The experiences of First Nations and Inuit youth with equine-assisted learning (EAL).Child and Youth Care Forum, 40(4), 319–336.

  • *Kern-Godal, A., Arnevik, E.A., Walderhaug, E., & Ravndal, E. (2015). Substance use disorder treatment retention and completion: a prospective study of EAT for young adults. Addiction Science and Clinical Practice, 10(21), 3–12.

  • *Kern-Godal, A., Brenna, I.H., Kogstad, N., Arnevik, E.A., & Ravndal, E. (2016). Contribution of the patient horse relationship to substance use disorder treatment: Patients’ experiences. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 11, 1–12.

  • *Kern-Godal, A., Brenna, I.H., Arnevik, E.A., & Ravndal, E. (2016). More than just a break from treatment: How substance use disorder patients experience the stable environment in horse-assisted therapy. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, 10, 99–108.


  • Cuypers, K., De Ridder, K., & Strandheim, A. (2011). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on 5 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(10), 901–908.

  • Hyun, G. J., Jung, T.-W., Park, J. H., Kang, K. D., Kim, S. M., Son, Y. D., et. al., (2016). Changes in gait balance and brain connectivity in response to equine-assisted activity and training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 22(4), 286–293.

  • Jang, B., Song, J., Kim, J., Kim, S., Lee, J., Shin, H.-Y., Kwon, J.-Y., Kim, Y.-H., & Joung, Y.-S. (2015). Equine‐assisted activities and therapy for treating children with attention‐ deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(9), 546–553.

  • Oh, Y., Seo, H., Jang, B., Song, J., Lee, J., Jeong, B., Kim, Y., Kwon, J., & Joung, Y. (2015). Therapeutic effect of 12 weeks equine assisted activities and therapies (EAA/T) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(1), 171–172.

  • Yoo, Jae Hyun, et. al. (2016). The effects of equine-assisted activities and therapy on resting-state brain function in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A pilot study. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: The Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 14(4), 357.

Ω Eating Disorders

  • *Christian, E. (2005). All creatures great and small: Utilizing equine-assisted therapy to treat eating disorders. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 24(1), 65–67.

  • Dezutti, J. E. (2013). Eating disorders and equine therapy: A nurse’s perspective on connecting through the recovery process. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 51(9), 24–31.

  • *Lac, V., Marble, E., & Boie, I. (2013). Equine-assisted psychotherapy as a creative relational approach to treating clients with eating disorders. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 8(4), 483–498.

  • *Lac, V. (2016). Amy’s Story: An existential-integrative equine-facilitated psychotherapy approach to anorexia nervosa. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1–12.

  • *Sharpe, H. (2014). Equine-facilitated counselling and women with eating disorders: Articulating bodily. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 48(2), 127–152.

Ω Neurological Conditions

  • *Cabiddu, R., Borghi-Silva, A., Trimer, R., Trimer, V., Ricci, P. A., Italiano Monteiro, C., et. al., (2016). Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders. Physiology and Behavior, 159, 88–94.

  • *Encheff, J., Armstrong, C. Masterson, M., Fox, C., & Gribble, P. (2012). Hippotherapy effects on trunk, pelvic, and hip motion during ambulation in children with neurological impairments. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 24(3), 242–250.

  • *Nervick, D., & Parent-Nichols, J. (2012). Hippotherapy effects on trunk, pelvic, and hip motion during ambulation in children with neurological impairments”. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 24(3), 251.

  • *Sunwoo, H., Chang, W. H., Kwon, J.-Y., Kim, T.-W., Lee, J.-Y., & Kim, Y.-H. (2012). Hippotherapy in adult patients with chronic brain disorders: a pilot study. Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, 36(6), 756–61.

  • Prison Populations

  • Cushing, J. L., & Williams, J. D. (1995). The wild mustang program: A case study in facilitated inmate therapy. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 22(3/4), 95–112.

  • Deaton, C. (2005). Humanizing prisons with animals: A closer look at “cell dogs” and horse programs in correctional institutions. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(1), 46–62.

  • Hemingway, A., Meek, R., & Hill, C. E. (2015). An exploration of an equine-facilitated learning intervention with young offenders. Society & Animals, 23(6), 544–568.

Ω Anxiety/Depression 

  • Alfonso, S. V., Alfonso, L. A., Llabre, M. M., & Isabel Fernandez, M. (2015). Project stride: An equine-assisted intervention to reduce symptoms of social anxiety in young women. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 11(6), 461–467.

  • Scheidhacker, M., Friedrich, D., & Bender, W. (2002). About the treatment of anxiety disorders by psychotherapeutic riding: Long-term observations and results of an experimental clinical study. Krankenhauspsychiatrie, 13(4), 145–152.

  • *Wilson, K., Buultjens, M., Monfries, M., & Karimi, L. (2015). Equine-assisted psychotherapy for adolescents experiencing depression and/or anxiety: A therapist’s perspective. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1–18.

Ω Down Syndrome

  • *Bevilacqua Junior, D.E., Ribeiro, M.F., Accioly, M.F., Ferreira, A.A., Antunes Teixeira, V.D.P., & Espindula, A.P. (2015). Heart rate variability in practitioners of hippotherapy with down syndrome. Physiotherapy, 101, e364.

  • *Champagne, D., & Dugas, C. (2010). Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with down syndrome: Case reports. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 26(8), 564–571.

  • *Ribeiro, M.F., Espindula, A.P., Ferreira, A.A., Ferraz, M.L.F., Souza, L.A.P.S., Diniz, L.H., & Teixeira, V.D.P.A. (2015). Electromyographic evaluation of lower limbs in individuals with down syndrome in hippotherapy. Physiotherapy, 101(2), e1279–e1280.

Ω Intellectual Disabilities

  • Borioni, N., Marinaro, P., Celestini, S., Del Sole, F., Magro, R., Zoppi, D., et. al., (2012). Effect of equestrian therapy and onotherapy in physical and psycho-social performances of adults with intellectual disability: a preliminary study of evaluation tools based on the ICF classification. Disability and Rehabilitation, 34(4), 279–287.

  • *Giagazoglou, P., Arabatzi, F., Dipla, K., Liga, M., & Kellis, E. (2012). Effect of a hippotherapy intervention program on static balance and strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(6), 2265–2270.

  • *Giagazoglou, P., Arabatzi, F., Kellis, E., Liga, M., Karra, C., & Amiridis, I. (2013). Muscle reaction function of individuals with intellectual disabilities may be improved through therapeutic use of a horse. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(9), 2442–2448.

Ω Back Pain

  • Håkanson, M., Möller, M., Lindström, I., & Mattsson, B. (2009). The horse as the healer: A study of riding in patients with back pain. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 13(1), 43–52.

  • Oh, H.-W., Lee, M.-G., Jang, J.-Y., Jin, J.-J., Cha, J.-Y., Jin, Y.-Y., & Jee, Y.-S. (2014). Time-effects of horse simulator exercise on psychophysiological responses in men with chronic low back pain. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 22(2), 153–163.

  • Yoo, J.-H., Kim, S.-E., Lee, M.-G., Jin, J.-J., Hong, J., Choi, Y.-T., Kim, M.-H., & Jee, Y.-S. (2014). The effect of horse simulator riding on visual analogue scale, body composition and trunk strength in the patients with chronic low back pain. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 68(8), 941–949.

Ω Cancer

  • Cerulli, C., Minganti, C., De Santis, C., Tranchita, E., Quaranta, F., & Parisi, A. (2014). Therapeutic horseback riding in breast cancer survivors: A pilot study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(8), 623–629.

  • Haylock, P. J., & Cantril, C. A. (2006). Healing with horses: Fostering recovery from cancer with horses as therapists. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 2(3), 264–268.

  • Spinal Cord Injury

  • *Lechner, H. E., Feldhaus, S., Gudmundsen, L., Hegemann, D., Michel, D., Zäch, G. a, & Knecht, H. (2003). The short-term effect of hippotherapy on spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord: The Official Journal of the International Medical Society of Paraplegia, 41(9), 502–505.

  • *Lechner, H. E., Kakebeeke, T. H., Hegemann, D., & Baumberger, M. (2007). The effect of hippotherapy on spasticity and on mental well-being of persons with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88(10), 1241–1248.

  • Suicide & Self-Harm

  • *Carlsson, C., Nilsson Ranta, D., & Traeen, B. (2015). Mentalizing and emotional labor facilitate equine-assisted social work with self-harming adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 32(4), 329–339.

  • *Carlsson, C. (2016). Triads in equine-assisted social work enhance therapeutic relationships with self-harming adolescents. Clinical Social Work Journal.

Ω Grief

  • *Glazer, H.R., Clark, M.D., & Stein, D.S. (2004). The impact of hippotherapy on grieving children. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing, 6(3), 171–175.

  • Symington, A. (2012). Grief and horses: Putting the pieces together. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 7, 165–174.

  • Misc. Clinical Conditions

  • Aldridge, R., Schweighart, F., Easley, M., & Wagoner, B. (2001). The effects of hippotherapy on motor performance and function in an individual with bilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Journal of Physical Therapy, 2, 54–63.

  • Bîlbă, A.N. (2015). Equine therapy – Applications in the recovery of disabled children. Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, 18(4), 46–53.

  • Bongers, B.C. & Takken, T. (2012). Physiological demands of therapeutic horseback riding in children with moderate to severe motor impairments: An exploratory study. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 24(3), 252–257.

  • Burgon, H. (2003). Case studies of adults receiving horse-riding therapy. Anthrozoös, 16(3), 263–274.

  • Cawley, R., Cawley, D., & Retter, K. (1994). Therapeutic horseback riding and self-concept in adolescents with special needs. Anthrozoos, 7(2), 129–134.

  • Del Rosario-Montejo, O., Molina-Rueda, F., Muñoz-Lasa, S., & Alguacil-Diego, I. M. (2015). Effectiveness of equine therapy in children with psychomotor impairment. Neurología, 30(7), 425–32.

  • Elliott, Steven, Funderburk, Janet A., & Holland, J. M. (2008). The impact of the “Stirrup Some Fun” therapeutic horseback riding program: a qualitative investigation. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 7(2), 19-28.

  • Exner, G., Engelmann, A., Lange, K., & Wenck, B. (1994). Basic principles and effects of hippotherapy within the comprehensive treatment of paraplegic patients. Rehabilitation (Stuttg), 33(1), 39–43.

  • Gilliland, K.J., & Knight, A.C. (2012). Friedreich’s Ataxia and gait changes through participation in therapeutic horseback riding. Clinical Kinesiology, 66(1), 1–6.

  • Gottwald, A., & Biewald, N. (1981). New aspects in the treatment of Scheuermann’s disease with hippotherapy. Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Ihre Grenzgebiete, 119(4): 351–355.

  • Heine, B. (1997). Hippotherapy: A multi-system approach to the treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Australia Journal of Physiotherapy, 43(2), 145–149.

  • Hession, C.E., Eastwood, B., Watterson, D., Lehane, C.M., Oxley, N., & Murphy, B. (2014). Therapeutic horse riding improves cognition, mood arousal, and ambulation in children with dyspraxia. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(1), 19–23.

  • Homem, R., & Oliveira, R. (2015). Influence of hippotherapy on the sleep of patients with Parkinson’s disease at advanced stage. Sleep Medicine, 16, S181.

  • Ihara, M., Ihara, M., & Doumura, M. (2012). Effect of therapeutic riding on functional scoliosis as observed by roentgenography. Pediatrics International, 54(1), 160–162.

  • Keino, H., Funahashi, A., Keino, H., Miwa, C., Hosokawa, M., Hayashi, Y., & Kawakita, K. (2009). Psycho-educational horseback riding to facilitate communication ability of children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Equine Science / Japanese Society of Equine Science, 20(4), 79–88.

  • Land, G., Errington-Povalac, E., & Paul, S. (2001). The effects of therapeutic riding on sitting posture in individuals with disabilities. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 14(1), 1–12.

  • Lee, C.-W., Kim, S.-G., & An, B.-W. (2015). The effects of horseback riding on body mass index and gait in obese women. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(4), 1169–1171.

  • Lehrman, J., & Ross, D.B. (2001). Therapeutic riding for a student with multiple disabilities and visual impairment: A case study. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(2), 108–109. Retrieved from

  • Lemke, D., Rothwell, E., Newcomb, T.M., & Swoboda, K.J. (2014). Perceptions of equine-assisted activities and therapies by parents and children with spinal muscular atrophy. Pediatric Physical Therapy: The Official Publication of the Section on Pediatrics of the American Physical Therapy Association, 26(2), 237–44.

  • Millhouse-Flourie, T. J. (2004). Physical, occupational, respiratory, speech, equine and pet therapies for mitochondrial disease. Mitochondrion, 4(5–6), 549–558.

  • Mosulishvili, T., & Loria, M. (2013). The effectiveness of ridetherapy in children with benign joint hypermobility syndrome during articulatory changes in the knee joint. Georgian Medical News, 2(215), 76–79.

  • Murphy, D., Kahn-D’Angelo, L., & Gleason, J. (2008). The effect of hippotherapy on functional outcomes for children with disabilities: a pilot study. Pediatric Physical Therapy: The Official Publication of the Section on Pediatrics of the American Physical Therapy Association, 20(3), 264–270.

  • Rigby, B.R., Papadakis, Z., Bane, A.A., Park, J.K., & Grandjean, P.W. (2015). Cardiorespiratory and biomechanical responses to simulated recreational horseback riding in healthy children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86(1), 63–70.

  • Rothhaupt, D., Ziegler, H., & Laser, T. (1997). Orthopedic hippotherapy–new methods in treatment of segmental instabilities of the lumbar spine. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 147(22), 504–508.

  • Schneider, M.S., & Harley, L.P. (2016). The impact of therapeutic riding for people with disabilities on variables related to mental health. Anthrozoos, 29(1), 59–72.

  • Silkwood-Sherer, D.J., Killian, C.B., Long, T. M., & Martin, K.S. (2012). Hippotherapy–an intervention to habilitate balance deficits in children with movement disorders: a clinical trial. Physical Therapy, 92(5), 707–717.

  • Turner, J.J. (2005). Effects of equine facilitated psychotherapy on client discharge status. Scientific and Educational Journal of Therapeutic, 11, 1–9.

  • Ungermann, C. M., & Gras, L. Z. (2011). Therapeutic riding followed by rhythmic auditory stimulation to improve balance and gait in a aubject with orthopedic pathologies. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(12), 1191–1195.

  • Wanneberg, P. (2014). Disability, riding, and identity: A qualitative study on the influence of riding on the identity construction of people with disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 61(1), 67–79.

  • Winchester, P., Kendall, K., Peters, H., Sears, N., & Winkley, T. (2002). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on gross motor function and gait speed in children who are developmentally delayed. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 22(3–4), 37–50.

Ω Studies Related to Clinical Methods or Models

  • Beetz, A., Winkler, N., Julius, H., Uvnäs-Moberg, K., & Kotrschal, K. (2015). A Comparison of equine-assisted intervention and conventional play-based early intervention for mother–child dyads with insecure attachment. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention, 8(1), 17–39.

  • Bachi, K. (2013). Application of attachment theory to equine-facilitated psychotherapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 43(3), 187–196.

  • Baker, S. (2015). Emerging practice areas: Occupational therapy and hippotherapy. Connections, 12(5), 14–15.

  • Bates, A. (2002). Of patients & horses. Equine-facilitated psychotherapy. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 40(5), 16–9.

  • Brandt, C. (2013). Equine-facilitated psychotherapy as a complementary treatment intervention. Practitioner Scholar: Journal of Counseling & Professional Psychology, 2(1), 23–42.

  • Cameron, J., & Robey, P.A. (2013). The horse power of choice theory. International Journal of Choice Theory and Reality Therapy, 32(1), 87–99.

  • Carlsson, C., Ranta, D. N., & Traeen, B. (2014). Equine assisted social work as a mean for authentic relations between clients and staff. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 2(1), 19–38.

  • Ford, C. (2013). Dancing with horses: Combining dance/movement therapy and equine facilitated psychotherapy. American Journal of Dance Therapy, 35(2), 93–117.

  • Johansen, S. G., Arfwedson Wang, C. E., Binder, P.-E., & Malt, U. F. (2014). Equine-facilitated body and emotion-oriented psychotherapy designed for adolescents and adults not responding to mainstream treatment: A structured program. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 24(4), 323–335.

  • Kakacek, S.L, & Ottens, A. (2008). An arena for success: Exploring equine-assisted psychotherapy. Michigan Journal of Counseling: Research, Theory, and Practice, 35(1), 14–23.

  • Karol, J., & Tac, N. (2007). Applying a traditional individual psychotherapy model to equine-facilitated psychotherapy (EFP): Theory and method. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12(1), 77–90.

  • Kirby, M. (2010). Gestalt equine psychotherapy. Gestalt Journal of Australia and New Zealand, 6(2), 60–68.

  • Klontz, B. T., Bivens, A., Leinart, D., & Klontz, B. T. (2007). The effectiveness of equine-assisted experiential therapy: Results of an open clinical trial. Society & Animals, 15, 257–267.

  • Lac, V. (2014). Horsing around: Gestalt equine psychotherapy as humanistic play therapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1–16.

  • Latella, D; Langford, S. (2008). Hippotherapy: An effective approach to occupational therapy intervention. Occupational Therapy Practice, 13(2), 16–20.

  • Macauley, B. L., & Gutierrez, K. M. (2004). The effectiveness of hippotherapy for children with language-learning disabilities. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 25(4), 205–217.

  • Mann, D. (2001). Equine-assisted family therapy: A horse-sense perspective. AAMFT Family Therapy News, 32(2), 22–23.

  • Notgrass, C. G., & Pettinelli, J. D. (2015). Equine assisted psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association’s model overview of equine-based modalities. Journal of Experiential Education, 38(2), 162–174.

  • Roberts, F., Bradberry, J., & Williams, C. (2004). Equine-facilitated psychotherapy benefits students and children. Holistic Nursing Practice, 18(1), 32–35.

  • Rothe, E., Vega, B., Torres, R., Soler, S., & Pazos, R. (2005). From kids and horses: Equine facilitated psychotherapy for children. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 5(2), 373–383.

  • Siporin, S. (2012). Talking horses: Equine psychotherapy and intersubjectivity. Psychodynamic Practice, 18(4), 457–464.

  • Swindell, M. (2010). Equine therapy and social work: A winning combination. Social Work, 1–4.

  • Tyler, J. L. (2008). Equine psychotherapy. Women & Therapy, 15(3–4), 139–146.

  • Vidrine, M., Owen-Smith, P., & Faulkner, P. (2002). Equine-facilitated group psychotherapy: Applications for therapeutic vaulting. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 23(6), 587–603.

Ω Practice Patterns & Perspectives

  • All, A.C., Loving, G.L., Crane, L.L. (1999). Animals, horseback riding, and the implications for rehabilitation therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation, 49–57.

  • Berg, E. L., & Causey, A. (2014). The life-changing power of the horse: Equine-assisted activities and therapies in the U.S. Animal Frontiers, 4, 72–75.

  • Cerquozzi, C., Cerquozzi, E., Darragh, A. Miller-Kuhaneck, H. (2007). An exploratory survey of occupational therapists’ role in hippotherapy. American Occupational Therapy Association’s Developmental Disabilities Special Interest Section Quarterly, 30(3), 1–4.

  • Cook, R. (2011). Human incidents and injury within the hippotherapy milieu: Four years of safety study data of risk, risk management, and occurrences definition of hippotherapy. Scientific and Educational Journal of Therapeutic Riding, 57–66.

  • Debuse, D., Chandler, C., & Gibb, C. (2005). An exploration of German and British physiotherapists’ views on the effects of hippotherapy and their measurement. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 21(4), 219–242.

  • DePauw, K. P. (1986). Horseback riding for individuals with disabilities: Programs, philosophy, and research. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 3(3), 217–226.

  • Favali, V., Milton, M. (2010). Disabled horse-rider’s experience of horse-riding: A phenomenological analysis of the benefits of contact with animals. Existential Analysis, 21(2), 251–262.

  • Granados, A. C., & Agís, I. F. (2011). Why children with special needs feel better with hippotherapy sessions: a conceptual review. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(3), 191–197.

  • Johns, L., Bobat, S., & Holder, J. (2016). Therapist experiences of equine-assisted psychotherapy in South Africa: A qualitative study. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 26(2), 199–203.

  • Kendall, E., Maujean, A., Pepping, C. A., & Wright, J. J. (2014). Hypotheses about the psychological benefits of horses. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 10(2), 81–87.

  • Masini, A. (2010). Equine-assisted psychotherapy in clinical practice. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 48(10), 30–34.

  • Matamonasa-Bennett, A. (2015). Putting the horse before Descartes: Native American paradigms and ethics in equine-assisted therapies. Business & Professional Ethics Journal, 34(1), 23–43.

  • Meregillano, G. (2004). Hippotherapy. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 15(4), 843-854.

  • Pham, C., & Bitonte, R. (2016). Hippotherapy: Remuneration issues impair the offering of this therapeutic strategy at Southern California rehabilitation centers. NeuroRehabilitation, 38(4), 411–417.

  • Pluta, M. (2011). Parental perceptions of the effect of child participation in hippotherapy programme on overall improvement of child mental and physical wellbeing. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska Lublin, XXIX(4), 74–84.

  • Ratliffe, K.T., Sanekane, C. (2009). Equine-assisted therapies: Complementary medicine or not? Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 13(2), 33–43.

  • Valle, L. M. O., Nishimori, A. Y., & Neme, K. (2014). Speech therapy in hippotherapy. Atualizacao Cientifica Em Fonoaudiologia E Educacao, 16(2), 511–523.

  • Wingate, L. (1982). Feasibility of horseback riding as a therapeutic and integrative program for handicapped children. Physical Therapy, 62(2), 184–6.

  • Young, R. L. (2005). Therapeutic components and the link to occupational therapy. International Journal of Therapy & Rehabilitation, 12(2), 78–82.

Ω Research Related to Non-Clinical Populations

  • Davis, D.L., Maurstad, A., & Dean, S. (2015). “My horse is my therapist: The medicalization of pleasure among women equestrians.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 29(3): 298-315.

  • Gehrke, E.K. (2009). Developing coherent leadership in partnership with horses- A new approach to leadership training. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching, 2(1), 222–233.

  • Gehrke, E.K., Baldwin, A., & Schiltz, P.M. (2011). Heart rate variability in horses engaged in equine-assisted activities. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 31(2), 78–84.

  • Kelly, S. (2013). Horses for courses: Exploring the limits of leadership development through equine-assisted learning. Journal of Management Education, 38(2), 216–233.

  • Hauge, H., Kvalem, I.L., Berget, B., Enders-Slegers, M.-J., & Braastad, B.O. (2014). Equine-assisted activities and the impact on perceived social support, self-esteem and self-efficacy among adolescents – an intervention study. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 19(1), 1–21.

  • Hauge, H., Kvalem, I., Pedersen, I., & Braastad, B. (2013). Equine-assisted activities for adolescents: Ethogram-based behavioral analysis of persistence during horse-related tasks and communication patterns with the horse. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 1, 57–81.

  • Hauge, H., Kvalem, I.L., Enders-Slegers, M-J., Berget, B., & Braastad, B.O. (2015). Persistence during tasks with horses in relation to social support, general self-efficacy and self-esteem in adolescents. Anthrozoos, 28(2), 333–347.

  • Meola, C.C. (2016). Addressing the needs of the Millennial workforce through equine assisted learning. Journal of Management Development, 35(3), 294–303.

  • Nicodemus, M. (2011). Student confidence levels in horsemanship skills associated with a university equine assisted therapy course. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science.

  • Pendry, P., Carr, A.M., Smith, A.N., & Roeter, S.M. (2014). Improving adolescent social competence and behavior: A randomized trial of an 11-week equine facilitated learning prevention program. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 35, 281–293.

  • Pendry, P., & Roeter, S. (2013). Experimental trial demonstrates positive effects of equine facilitated learning on child social competence. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 1(1), 1–19.

  • Pendry, P., Smith, A.N., & Roeter, S.M. (2014). Randomized trial examines effects of equine facilitated learning on adolescents’ basal cortisol levels. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 2(1), 80–95.

  • Perrotta, F. (2012). Equestrian rehabilitation. “The benefits of approach with the horse in schools and in therapeutic.” Sport Science, 5(1), 15–20.

  • Walsh, K.M., & Blakeney, B.A. (2013). Nurse presence enhanced through Equus. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 31(2), 121–128.

Ω Research Related to the Movement of the Horse

  • Flores, F.M., Dagnese, F., Mota, C.B., & Copetti, F. (2015). Parameters of the center of pressure displacement on the saddle during hippotherapy on different surfaces. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 19(3), 211–217.

  • Garner, B. A., & Rigby, B.R. (2015). Human pelvis motions when walking and when riding a therapeutic horse. Human Movement Science, 39, 121–137.

  • Goldmann, T., & Vilimek, M. (2012). Kinematics of human spine during hippotherapy. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 15(1), 203–5.

  • Janura, M., Peham, C., Dvorakova, T., & Elfmark, M. (2009). An assessment of the pressure distribution exerted by a rider on the back of a horse during hippotherapy. Human Movement Science, 28(3), 387–393.

  • Janura, M., Svoboda, Z., Dvorakova, T., Cabell, L., Elfmark, M., & Janurova, E. (2012). The variability of a horse’s movement at walk in hippotherapy. Kinesiology, 44(2), 148–154.

  • Janura, M., Svoboda, Z., Cabell, L., Dvořáková, T., & Jelen, K. (2015). Effect of repeated therapeutic horse riding sessions on the trunk movement of the rider. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 36(5), 481–489.

  • Park, J.H., Shurtleff, T., Engsberg, J., Rafferty, S., You, J.Y., You, I.Y., & You, S.H. (2014). Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy. Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering, 24(6), 2603–2610.

  • Uchiyama, H., Ohtani, N., & Ohta, M. (2011). Three-dimensional analysis of horse and human gaits in therapeutic riding. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 135(4), 271–276.

Ω Articles Related to Horse Selection and Use for Equine-Assisted Therapy

  • Anderson, M.K., Friend, T.H., Evans, J.W., & Bushong, D.M. (1999). Behavioral assessment of horses in therapeutic riding programs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 63, 11–24.

  • Ciesla, A. (2007). The Characteristic of horses used in Hippotherapy in selected horse therapy centres in Poland. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Zootechnica, 6(1), 3–14.

  • de Oliveira, K., Soutello, R.V G., da Fonseca, R., Costa, C., Paulo, P. R., Fachiolli, D. F., & Clayton, H. M. (2015). Gymnastic training and dynamic mobilization exercises improve stride quality and increase epaxial muscle size in therapy horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 35(11–12), 888–893.

  • DeBose, K. G. (2015). Therapy horses: An overview of utilizing equines in therapeutic programs. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information, 16(4), 353–363.

  • Łojek, J., Pluta, M., Cie, A., Domachowska, A., Przybyłowicz, N., & Łojek, A. (2015). Conformation analysis of horses used in equine-assisted activities at Polish Hippotherapeutic Centers. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Zootechnica, 14(2), 121–134.

  • Matsuura, A., Ohta, E., Ueda, K., Nakatsuji, H., & Kondo, S. (2008). Influence of equine conformation on rider oscillation and evaluation of horses for therapeutic riding. Journal of Equine Science, 19(1), 9–18.

  • Minero, M., Zucca, D., & Canali, E. (2006). A note on reaction to novel stimulus and restraint by therapeutic riding horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 97(2–4), 335–342.

  • Moisa, C.M., Barabasi, J., & Papuc, I. (2012). Selection methods for horses used in hippotherapy. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Veterinary Medicine, 69(1/2), 156–163.

  • Nicosia, D.M.S., & Bacci, M.L. (2009). Study of therapeutic riding horses: a review. Ippologia, 20(1), 9–14.

  • Ojek, J., Ojek, A., & Soborska, J. (2013). Effect of classic massage therapy on the heart rate of horses working in hippotherapy. Case study. Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 52, 105–111.

  • Pawelec, A., Kubinska, M., Jastrzebska, E., Wejer, J. (2014). Characteristics of hippotherapeutic horses in Poland. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska Lublin – Polonia, XXXII(3), 9–19.

  • Pluta, M. (2009). Characteristics of the trunks of horses used for classic hippotherapy. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska Lublin – Polonia, XXVII(3), 1–16.

  • Svoboda, Z., Dvořáková, T., & Janura, M. (2011). Does the rider influence the horse’s movement in hippotherapy? Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis, Gymnica, 41(4), 37–42.

Ω Articles Related to Effects of Equine-Assisted Therapy on Horses

  • Fazio, E., Medica, P., Cravana, C., & Ferlazzo, A. (2013). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses of horses to therapeutic riding program: Effects of different riders. Physiology and Behavior, 118, 138–143.

  • Kaiser, L., Heleski, C.R., Siegford, J., & Smith, K.A. (2006). Stress-related behaviors among horses used in a therapeutic riding program. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 228(1), 39–45.

  • McKinney, C., Mueller, M. K., & Frank, N. (2015). Effects of therapeutic riding on measures of stress in horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 35(11–12), 922–928.

  • O’Rourke, K. (2004). Horse-assisted therapy: Good for humans, but how about horses? Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225(6), 817–817.

  • Other Articles Related to Ethics of Appropriating Horses for Human Use

  • Fureix, C., Beaulieu, C., Argaud, S., Rochais, C., Quinton, M., Henry, S., Hausberger, M., & Mason. G. (2015). Investigating anhedonia in a non-conventional species: Do some riding horses Equus caballus display symptoms of depression? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 162, 26–36.

  • Hausberger, M., Gautier, E., Biquand, V., Lunel, C., & Jégo, P. (2009). Could work be a source of behavioural disorders? A study in horses. PLoS ONE, 4(10), 2–9.

  • Lesimple, C., Fureix, C., Menguy, H., & Hausberger, M. (2010). Human direct actions may alter animal welfare, a study on horses (Equus caballus). PloS One, 5(4), 1–8.

  • Lesimple, C., Hausberger, M., Hommel, B., & Staios, M. (2014). How accurate are we at assessing others’ well-being? The example of welfare assessment in horses. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(21), 1–6.

  • Popescu, S., Diugan, E. a., & Spinu, M. (2014). The interrelations of good welfare indicators assessed in working horses and their relationships with the type of work. Research in Veterinary Science, 96, 406–414.

Ω Articles Related to Horse-Human Relationship

  • Birke, L., & Brandt, K. (2009). Mutual corporeality: Gender and human/horse relationships. Women’s Studies International Forum, 32(3), 189–197.

  • Game, a. (2001). Riding: Embodying the centaur. Body & Society, 7(4), 1–12.

  • Garcia, D. M. (2010). Of equine and humans: Toward a new ecology. Ecopsychology, 2(2), 85–89.

  • Hausberger, M., Roche, H., Henry, S., & Visser, K.E. (2008). A review of the human-horse relationship. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 109(1), 1–24.

  • Keaveney, S.M. (2008). Equines and their human companions. Journal of Business Research, 61(5), 444–454.

  • Keeling, L. J., Jonare, L., & Lanneborn, L. (2009). Investigating horse-human interactions: The effect of a nervous human. Veterinary Journal, 181, 70–71.

  • Maurstad, A., Davis, D., & Cowles, S. (2013). Co-being and intra-action in horse-human relationships: A multi-species ethnography of be(com)ing human and be(com)ing horse. Social Anthropology, 21(3), 322–335.

  • Robinson, I.H., Centre, W., & Lane, F. (1999). The human-horse relationship: how much do we know? Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement, 28, 42–45.

Ω Articles Related to Equine Ethology, Equine Behavior, Communication

  • Brandt, K. (2004). A language of their own: An interactionalist approach to horse-human communication. Society & Animals, 12(4), 299–316.

  • Briefer, E.F., Maigrot, A.-L., Mandel, R., Freymond, S. B., Bachmann, I., & Hillmann, E. (2015). Segregation of information about emotional arousal and valence in horse whinnies. Scientific Reports, 4, 1-11.

  • Christensen, J.W., Keeling, L.J., & Nielsen, B.L. (2005). Responses of horses to novel visual, olfactory and auditory stimuli. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 93, 53–65.

  • Cozzi, A., Sighieri, C., Gazzano, A., Nicol, C. J., & Baragli, P. (2010). Post-conflict friendly reunion in a permanent group of horses (Equus caballus). Behavioural Processes, 85, 185–190.

  • Dalla Costa, E., Minero, M., Lebelt, D., Stucke, D., Canali, E., & Leach, M. C. (2014). Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a pain assessment tool in horses undergoing routine castration. PLoS ONE, 9(3), 1–10.

  • de Grauw, J. C., & van Loon, J. P. A. M. (2016). Systematic pain assessment in horses. Veterinary Journal, 209, 14–22.

  • Dorey, N.R., Conover, A.M., & Udell, M.A.R. (2014). Interspecific communication from people to horses (Equus ferus caballus) is influenced by different horsemanship training styles. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 128(4), 337–342.

  • Fureix, C., Pages, M, Bon, R, Lassalle, J.-M., Kuntz, P, & Gonzalez, G. (2009). Horse training and reactivity. Behavioural Processes, 82, 202–210.

  • Goodwin, D. (1999). The importance of ethology in understanding the behaviour of the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement, 28(28), 15–19.

  • Goodwin, D., McGreevy, P., Waran, N., & McLean, A. (2009). How equitation science can elucidate and refine horsemanship techniques. Veterinary Journal, 181(1), 5–11.

  • Hampson, B. A., De laat, M. A., Mills, P. C., & Pollitt, C. C. (2010). Distances travelled by feral horses in “outback” Australia. Equine Veterinary Journal, 42(38), 582–586.

  • Henshall, C., & McGreevy, P. D. (2014). The role of ethology in round pen horse training-A review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 155, 1–11.

  • Keeling, L. J., Jonare, L., & Lanneborn, L. (2009). Investigating horse-human interactions: The effect of a nervous human. Veterinary Journal, 181, 70–71

  • Krueger, K. (2007). Behaviour of horses in the “round pen technique.” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 104(1–2), 162–170.

  • Lovrovich, P., Sighieri, C., & Baragli, P. (2015). Following human-given cues or not? Horses (Equus caballus) get smarter and change strategy in a delayed three choice task. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 166, 80–88.

  • McBride, S. D., & Mills, D. (2012). Psychological factors affecting equine performance. BMC Veterinary Research, 8(1), 1.

  • McGreevy, P.D., Oddie, C., Burton, F.L., & McLean, A.N. (2009). The horse–human dyad: Can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram? The Veterinary Journal, 181(1), 12–18.

  • Merkies, K., Sievers, A., Zakrajsek, E., Macgregor, H., Bergeron, R., & König Von Borstel, U. (2014). Preliminary results suggest an influence of psychological and physiological stress in humans on horse heart rate and behavior. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 9, 242–247.

  • Proops, L., & McComb, K. (2010). Attributing attention: the use of human-given cues by domestic horses (Equus caballus). Animal Cognition, 13(2), 197–205.

  • Rochais, C., Henry, S., Sankey, C., Nassur, F., Góracka-Bruzda, A., & Hausberger, M. (2014). Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus). Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1–10.

  • Rose-Meierh, S., Ofer, €, Klaer, S., Ammon, C., Brunsch, R., & Hoffmann, G. (2010). Activity behavior of horses housed in different open barn systems. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 30(11), 624–634.

  • Sankey, C., Richard-Yris, M.-A. A., Leroy, H., Henry, S. V., & Hausberger, M. (2010). Positive interactions lead to lasting positive memories in horses, Equus caballus. Animal Behaviour, 79, 869–875.

  • Warren-Smith, A. K., & McGreevy, P. D. (2008). Preliminary investigations into the ethological relevance of round-pen (round-yard) training of horses. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 11, 285–298.

  • Wathan, J., & McComb, K. (2014). The eyes and ears are visual indicators of attention in domestic horses. Current Biology, 24(15), R677-9.

  • Yarnell, K., Hall, C., Royle, C., & Walker, S. L. (2015). Domesticated horses differ in their behavioural and physiological responses to isolated and group housing. Physiology & Behavior, 143, 51–57.

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